"The ends cannot justify the means for the simple and obvious reason that the means employed determine the nature of the ends produced"
"The ends cannot justify the means for the simple and obvious reason that the means employed determine the nature of the ends produced"
1. Define psychology.
The scientific study of human and animal behavior
2. Explain what is meant by behavior.
Anything you do – eating sleeping, talking, thinking, or sneezing.
The following are Psychology’s Goals:
3. Explain how description,
Making a detail record of behavior
Stating the causes of behavior
5. prediction, and
The ability to accurately forecast behavior
6. control are used and practiced in psychology.
Altering conditions that influence behavior in predictable ways
Define and differentiate the following branches of Psychology:
This deals with the structure of mental life. Structuralists analyze experiences into basic elements.
This comes from an interest in how the mind functions to adapt us to our environment. Functionalists were strongly influenced by Darwin.
This objected to defining psychology as the study of the mind.
10. Gestalt Psychology
This emphasizes the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.
11. Psychoanalytic Psychology
This says that our behavior is influenced by vast areas of unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires, which cannot be know directly.
12. Humanistic Psychology
These psychologists focus on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
13. What is the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist?
Psychologists study the behavior of people and animals while psychiatrists are more like physicians.
14. Name the parts of neuron.
Dendrites, soma, axon, and axon terminals
15. Explain the function of Synapses and Neurotransmitters.
When a nerve impulse reaches the tips of the axon terminals, it causes neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic gap.
16. Describe the specialized function of the Cerebral Hemispheres.
The left side of the brain mainly controls the right side of the body. The right side mainly controls left body areas. Language is a specialty of the left hemisphere. The right hemisphere is better at perceptual skills.
17. Name the parts of the Subcortex.
Brainstem, midbrain, and forebrain
18. What does the Endocrine System produce and how can it affect behavior?
It produces hormones that affect internal activities and behavior.
19. Explain the role of Heredity.
Heredity is the transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to offspring through genes.
20. Explain the role of Environment.
The environment determines many characteristics about people. For instance, a baby born today could become almost anything – a programmer, an engineer, a rapper, or a biochemist. But an Upper Paleolithic baby could not possibly have grown into anything except a hunter or food gatherer.
21. When does Postpartum Depression occur?
22. Name and describe some of the elements of Social Development.
Self-Awareness – being able to recognize yourself
Social Referencing – being aware of others
23. Name and describe the stages of Language Development.
They first learn one word and use it a while. They then will learn a few more. They then start to do telegraphic speech, where they only say two words at a time. Then from here on, the vocabulary leaps exponentially.
24. Explain Cognitive Development using an appropriate example such as the
conservation of matter.
If you pour the same amount milk into a wide, short glass and into a tall, narrow glass, the child will say that the taller glass has more milk simply because they can not handle transformations like this.
25. Explain Erikson’s psycho-social development and the role of dilemmas
in Moral Development.
Morel thinking is based on the preconventional level at first. This is followed by the conventional level where actions are guided by a desire to conform to the expectations of others. The third, postconventional level, represents advanced moral development. This has self-accepted guidance.
26. Explain the role of Deprivation and Enrichment.
This is the loss or withholding of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, love, and so forth; a condition of lacking.
27. Name the Problems of Childhood.
Sleep disturbances, fears, being overly timid, dissatisfaction, negativism, clinging, and reversals.
28. Name the problems of Adolescence.
Early or late maturation can be a problem. Searching for identity also may be one. Problems with parents is another one.
29. Name the Challenges of Adulthood.
Escaping from dominance, leaving the family, building a workable life, crisis of questions, crises of urgency, attaining stability, and mellowing.
30. Describe the problems of Aging.
Some may include self-acceptance, relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, a purpose in life, and personal growth.
31. What is Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’ contribution to life span development
especially on death and dying.
That people generally follow the pattern of denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and then acceptance.
32. Briefly describe the process of Vision.
Having light reflected off of surfaces and being able to visually interpret the data.
33. Briefly describe the process Hearing.
The ears pick up on vibrations. Different wavelengths and amplitudes produce different sounds.
34. Briefly describe the working of Smell and Taste.
The receptors for smell respond primarily to gaseous molecules carried in the air. There are four basic taste sensations: sweet, salt, sour, and bitter. We are most sensitive to bitter and least sensitive to sweet.
35. Explain Adaptation.
Adaptation refers to a decrease in sensory response to a constant or unchanging stimulus.
36. What is meant by Attention.
Being able to tune into certain senses that the body brings in is how attention works.
37. Explain Perceptual Constancies.
This is being able to take the data in from the world and tame it into correct and useful information.
38. Explain Perceptual Grouping.
Being able to take your visual sensations and perceive things correctly
39. Explain how Perceptual Learning works.
It is the process of being able to learn based of what you perceive.
40. Distinguish between Motives and Perceptions.
Motives can make you notice different things. Like if you’re driving down the road and are hungry, you will notice more restaurants and food related things.
41. Explain what are Perceptual Expectancies.
Where past experience, motives, or suggestions may create expectations that make you perceive things a certain way
42. Explain what is meant by (ESP) Extrasensory Perception.
This is the purported ability to perceive events in ways that cannot be explained by accepted perceptual principles.
43. List the name and number of the stages of Sleep there are there and what takes place in each?
Stage 1 – The beginning stage with REM
Stage 2 – More sleep activity occurs; sleep spindles
Stage 3 – Delta brain waves occur
Stage 4 – Deep sleep is reached
44. Name and describe some Biological Rhythms.
Your sleeping and not-sleeping schedule has a rhythm to it. You get into a groove of where you are expected to do one or the other at certain times.
45. Is hypnosis a myth? Briefly describe some of the useful aspects of this state.
No it is not. Some of the useful aspects are:
Memory – can enhance
Pain Release – can relieve pain
Age regression – can regress some people to childhood
Sensory changes – can make people’s sensory objects respond differently to certain things.
46. How does one attain a meditative state?
Sit still and quietly focus on some external object or on a repetitive internal stimulus.
47. Explain what is a Drug-Altered state of consciousness?
This is when one has altered attention, memory, judgment, time sense, self-control, mood, or perception.
48. Uppers: Amphetamines, Cocaine, Caffeine – describe uses and dangers.
These all bring you up and make you feel better and more alert. The dangers are that they can give high blood pressure, hallucination, or even convulsions.
49. Downers: Sedatives, Tranquilizers, and Alcohol – describe uses and dangers.
These give you anxiety reduction and sociability, but can also cause toxic psychosis and neurologic damage.
50. Marijuana: describe uses and dangers.
It’s used for relaxation, but can also create lung cancer and other health risks.
51. Define Learning.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience.
52. Name the steps of Classical Conditioning.
This is doing something over and over until the subject starts to respond to it.
53. What is a Skinner Box?
A simple device invented by B. F. Skinner. It allows careful study of operant conditioning. When a rat presses the bar, a pellet of food or a drop of water is automatically released.
54. Describe the role of punishment in learning.
Punishment lowers the probability that a response will occur again.
55. Explain what is meant by Cognitive Learning.
This refers to understanding, knowing, anticipating, or otherwise making use of information-rich higher mental processes.
56. What are the stages of memory.
Encoding, storing, and retrieving
57. Describe how memory can be measured.
It can be measured by recollection.
58. Describe the role of memory formation.
Different things are put into the brain differently. If something is more important and used more often it will stay in the brain longer.
59. Can memory be improved?
Yes, by recitation, rehearsal, selection, and some other things.
60. What is thinking?
Thinking ismentally processing information.
61. Provide an example of how can mental imagery be useful?
It can give a quick idea of what the item looks like – perhaps for solving a rubics cube.
62. Describe the role of concept formation?
This is the process of classifying information into meaningful categories.
63. Describe the structure of language and its components.
Languages have words which are built out of phonemes and morphemes. They also have grammar which helps form words into sentences.
64. Describe some different types of Problem Solving.
Mechanical solutions - or trial and error.
Understanding – finding solutions by using a higher level of thinking
Heuristics – reducing the number of alternatives and finding an answer
65. Explain Artificial Intelligence
AI refers to computer programs capable of doing things that require intelligence when done by people.
66. Define Human Intelligence and describe some ways to measure it.
This is the intelligence of human beings. The most comment way to measure it is with tests like the IQ Test.
67. Can Creative Thinking be taught? Can it be measured?
Creative thinking can be taught. Yes, it can be measured by creativity tests.
68. Explain what is meant by intuitive thought.
Intuitive thought is quick, impulsive thoughts that do not make use of clear reasoning.
69. Explain Motivation.
Motivation refers to the dynamics of behavior – the ways in which our activities are initiated, sustained, and directed.
70. What are Primary Motives?
These are things that are needed more than anything else.
71. Explain what Learned Motives are.
These are motives or goals that that are related to acquired needs for power, affiliation, approval, status, and achievement.
72. Provide a distinction between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.
Intrinsic occurs when there is no obvious external reward or purpose behind your actions. Extrinsic stems from obvious external factors, such as pay, grades, etc.
73. Where do emotions come from and how do they affect behavior?
Emotions are a state characterized by physiological arousal, changes in facial expression, gestures, and subjective feelings. Emotions move us.
74. List some Theories of Emotion
The James-Lange Theory, The Cannon-Bard Theory, and Schachter’s Cognitive Theory of Emotion
75. What is Health Psychology?
This is the use of psychological principles to promote health and to prevent illness.
76. Explain the role of stress. Is it good or bad?
Stress occurs any time we must adjust or adapt to the environment. A little bit of stress is good, but too much may be damaging.
77. Define Frustration.
Frustration is based on conditions outside of the individual that impede progress toward a goal.
78. Provide an example of a Psychological Defense mechanism?
Denial – protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to accept it or believe it
79. What are Personality Traits.
These are lasting qualities within a person.
80. Name some personality types.
Athletic, motherly, silent type, and so forth.
81. Describe Psychoanalytic Theory.
The ID – made up of innate biological instincts
The Ego – directs energies supplied by the id
The Superego – judge or censor for the thoughts and actions of the ego
82. Name and describe some Learning Theories.
Social Learning Theory – the cognitive behaviorism of social learning theory can be illustrated by three concepts: the psychological situation, expectancy, and reinforcement value.
83. What is meant by Humanistic Theory?
This is where people view human nature as inherently good and they seek ways to allow our potentials to emerge.
84. Explain Carl Rogers’ Self Theory.
He said the fully functioning person is one who has achieved an openness to feelings and experiences and has learned to trust inner urges and intuitions.
85. Personality Assessment
Personalities are assessed through interviews, observation, questionnaires, and projective tests.
86. Explain what it means to be normal/abnormal?
Psychopathology is characterized by subjective discomfort. That is, unhealthy personality will be marked by unhappiness, anxiety, depression, or other signs of emotional upset.
87. Where would one find a Classification of Mental Disorders?
88. What is a Personality Disorder?
These are deeply ingrained, unhealthy personality patterns.
89. What is meant by Sexual Deviance.
Sexual Deviance implies a departure from accepted standards of proper behavior.
90. Explain the main features of Anxiety-Based Disorders.
In most anxiety disorders, the person’s distress seems greatly out of proportion to the situation.
91. Differentiate between Psychosis and Neurosis.
A person who is psychotic undergoes a number of striking changes in thinking, behavior, and emotion. Neurotic behavior is now classified as anxiety.
92. Provide an example of a Delusional Disorders.
Somebody that believes he is Jesus Christ may try to walk on water or perform miracles.
93. Describe features of Schizophrenia.
In schizophrenia there is a split between thought and emotions, which may become blunted, or very inappropriate. Some people may be in panic. Some people may be in a period of being frozen. There is also a type where people are paranoid.
94. What are the Mood Disorders?
Where one is either depressed or bipolar (goes up and down).
95. Describe the key features of Psychotherapy.
This is any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in a person’s personality, behavior, or adjustment.
96. Describe the key features of Psychoanalysis.
This stresses that repressed memories, motives, and conflicts cause people to develop rigid ego-defense mechanisms.
97. Name the stages of Sexual Development and describe what takes place in
Two X chromosomes initiate development of a female; an X and Y produce a male. A woman always produces an X and a male has ½ X and ½ Y.
98. Sexual Behavior
This is the inescapable reality that springs from the basic biology of reproduction.
99. Group Structure.
The network of roles, communication pathways, and power in a group
100. Social Perception.
Impressions formed of people from only the smallest shreds of evidence.
101. Social Influence.
Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the presence or actions of the others
102. Is insanity a scientific word? If not, what kind of a term is it?
Yes – Legally, a mental disability shown by an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be aware of the consequences of one’s actions.Filed under: Misc, Misc